Plastic type of material, often with trade names e.g. Perspex, Plexiglas and Oroglass. Used as alternative to glass. HSS cutters are recommended to machine this material for a superior finish.
An opening in a material or router base.
A spindle onto which a variety of slotting, slitting and grooving cutters can be mounted along with various spacers and a locking nut. A ball bearing may also slide on the spindle to act as a guide as an alternative to a side fence.
A moulded framework surround for doors, archways, etc. Architraves can be machined with a router or spindle moulder.
Found on commutator (Carbon brush) motors. Includes the rotor, windings and commutator. In a router, the armature has a thread on one end which holds the collet and nut assembly.
A sharp edge produced where two surfaces meet at an angle.
The process of cutting in the opposite direction to the rotation of the cutter. Back-cutting should be avoided, a notable exception being the use of a suitably constructed jig, for example a dovetailing jig.
A back-fence is a 90 degree surface on a router table against which the timber is passed to keep it in an exact position relative to the cutter.
Barley Twist Moulding
A spiral pattern resembling a twisted rope. This type of turning can only be produced easily with the Trend Router lathe.
A moulding with a convex or bellied profile. Also called a 'pulvenated' moulding.
Any straight-edged piece of timber used as a guide against which the router or portable saw passes
A small rounded (convex) profile or moulding. Available in numerous variations and sizes.
A straight bar with a pivot point onto which the router is mounted to cut curves and circles.
An angle applied from top to bottom of a piece of material.
These are dowels compressed in the form of an oval biscuit with roughened surfaces to give a key for PVA glue to adhere to.
Means of jointing timber and composite boards using dowels shaped like oval biscuits. Special ´biscuit´ jointing power tools are available but the techniques are easily carried out using a conventional router.
Term used in the USA and sometimes in the UK, meaning a router cutter (all grades). Available in straight form, helical shaped, or with a multitude of mould profiles.
A board made from cores of timber bonded together and covered with veneer on both sides.
A raised and rebated moulding which projects beyond the face of the frame into which it is inserted.
A straight bit with cutting edges on the end to allow plunge cutting.
Box Corner Joint
Another term for a comb joint. Grooves for comb-jointing are usually cut by a series of stacked groovers mounted on an arbor. Box corner joints can also be produced with a straight router cutter in conjunction with a suitable jig.
A guiding device which involves the workpiece being held within a box structure for machining or drilling to a pattern.
A form of welding that secures a carbide cutting edge to the steel body of a router cutter.
Term used for describing the splitting out of the edge of material being machined.
A joint similar to a mortise and tenon but with the positions of the mortise and tenon reversed.
A cornice produced by joining several sections together.
This refers to timber which has been jointed from smaller sections.
This occurs generally when routing at too slow a feed rate, taking too deep a cut, or when the non-cutting part of the tool is rubbing the workpiece. It can also indicate that a router cutter may need resharpening.
Small multi-fluted rasps used for deburring, cleaning welds and woodcarving. Normally used in portable hand grinders or light duty hand routers.
A joint made when two pieces of wood are joined together with no overlap, shoulders, or tenons.
The process of cutting in the opposite direction to the rotation of the cutter. Back-cutting should be avoided, a notable exception being the use of a suitably constructed jig, for example a dovetailing jig.
A particular arched shape formed on the top of raised panel doors.
A cutter which produces a radiused groove in window and door joinery, for the purpose of draining off water.
Carbide (Tungsten Carbide)
A very hard and durable compound used to make router cutters. This is either brazed onto steel shoulders or produced as an integral solid carbide cutter. Carbide requires careful handling and storage as it can be brittle.
Found in a commutator motor. The brushes feed current to the windings on the rotor and bear on the metal segments (commutator) on the rotor.
Used for twist drills and machine bit. Has 0.6 to 1.8 % carbon content. Abbreviated as WS.
The body part of a box-like piece of furniture without the doors and fittings.
A glazed frame or sash which is either hinged or pivoted.
A quarter-round concave moulding, with a quirk shoulder.
A corner that is angled so that the edge of the material is removed equally on each face.
A series of ripples left on the cut surface caused by feeding too fast or using a blunt cutter.
A strip of timber or plastic often used to extend the bearing surface of a fence to prevent router or timber running off course when feeding-in.
The space between the surface of the cut and the bit body that controls the size of the cut and the speed of feeding.
Manmade wood particle board used in cupboards and shelf units, usually faced with a veneer, plastic laminate or melamine foil. TCT cutters should be used with this abrasive material.
Usually refers to the holding device at the end of a power drill or lathe. Serves a similar purpose to that of a collet on a router.
The angle of the cutter edge relative to the body of the bit.
Computer Numerical Control - the technique where a cutting head such as a router is controlled by a computer through a program defining the cutting path to be followed.
A chuck or gripping device which fits on the end of a routing machine spindle to hold the shank of the cutters (concentric).
The size of cutter shank that will fit a particular collet. Common sizes are 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 8mm and 12mm.
The hexagonal nut that retains the collet in place on the spindle of a router.
A joint usually consisting of parallel cut fingers which interlock. Often called a corner box joint.
A cutter which can perform more than one profiling or shaping operation, usually by applying it at different depths and angles.
One or more circles within each other, having the same centre point.
The profile or section of a moulding, denoting shape and size.
A router which has the facility to cut or profile when working from a template or guide.
A groove with a rounded concave bottom. A core box cutter is often termed a radius cutter or a veining bit.
A 'marble-like' material with a dense structure used in luxury kitchens and bathrooms. Can be cut to a wide variety of shapes and designs with router cutters. (Corian is a trademark of Du Pont). Classed as a composite worktop and is acrylic based and bonded to a MDF core. Other composite board brands include Avonite, Apollo Quicktops, Apollo Magna, Apollo Slab, Maia, Earthstone, Minerva, Hanex, Hi-Macs and Staron. Some brands may be bonded to a chipboard core.
A method of recessing the head of a screw or bolt into material. Tools which drill and cut the recess simultaneously are called counterborers.
Similar to counterboring, but these tools cut countersink recesses to receive bolts and screws with countersunk heads.
A quarter round concave moulding, normally produced by a radius cutter, used for edging purposes.
A piece of equipment for squeezing together pieces of material. Also known as ´clamp´.
Usually refers to the main body of a spindle cutter head into which cutters are inserted and locked. The term is also used to refer to the body of router cutters which have replaceable cutting edges.
Movement of the cutter shank within the collet during use, caused by insufficient tightening or collet wear.
The maximum width of the path made by any router cutter in one pass.
The maximum length of the full cutting edge of a router cutter.
"Dead Man" Switch
On/off switch without a lock so it must be held "on" at all times when using the router.
Square or rectangular recessed channels cut into a wood surface against the grain of the wood.
A means of limiting the amount of plunge on the router to cut to a predetermined depth.
Depth of Cut
Length of cutting edge of a router cutter or, depending on how the cutter is set-up in the router, the depth of cut the tool has been set-up to produce.
A device on a routing machine which is adjusted to set the depth of cut the Plunge action will reach.
An engineering tool designed to make minute adjustments.
Disposable Tip Cutter
A type of cutter used in industrial or heavier duty applications. The tips of the cutter can be removed when blunt and replaced with new ones. This type of tooling can increase productivity by reducing down time on CNC machines.
A joint in which one part is tapered in shape (the "dove's tail") and fits in a socket shaped to correspond. As a result of its design, it produces a strong joint to resists any outward pull. A strong reliable means of jointing timber.
A headless pin of wood used with an adhesive, to hold a joint together.
Dowel Drilling Bits
Accurately sized cutters for drilling holes to receive dowels. Also used for cutting holes to receive plugs. For use in Plunge routers or drilling machines. Often called lip and spur bits.
A jig enabling a series of exactly spaced holes to be bored accurately in both members to be joined. Specially useful for dowelling door frames, mitres, and similar work. Can usually be used with a Plunge router or power drill.
Drop Leaf Table
Sometimes called a ´flag table´, drop leaf tables use a rule joint system for hinging. This involves routing an ovolo mould on a table with a radius profile on the leaf to match.
One or more circles within each other not having the same centre point.
Chuck to hold eccentric router cutters. The chuck has a hole which is bored off centre.
Cutters which cut 'off centre' with cutting edge being proud of the body, giving a larger cutting diameter
Using a straight cutter to remove the complete edge of the workpiece. This can be achieved with a guide batten, template with guide bush or backfence/sidefence with outfeed fence paired to the thickness of the material removed.
Cutting back the edge of a workpiece or overlay to a pre-determined size.
Length of solid wood used to edge composite boards, such as plywood, chipboard and MDF to give an attractive appearance and provide a stronger fixing base for screws, etc.
Referring to the current generation of routers which have a variable speed motor (8000-25000rpm) for soft start, and speed selection for different diameter cutters (the larger the diameter the slower the speed). Full wave electronics prevent any drop-off in speed underload so ensuring an accurate finish.
The technical description is 'the cross section of a cone at any angle other than at right angles with the axis'. Ellipse routing jigs are available for fitting to portable routers.
The view of an end grain, as seen when timber is cut approximately 90° to the grain direction (traverse).
A metal plate around a keyhole, which protects the surrounding surface; or the metal lining of the keyhole itself.
This is the 'master edge' from which other measurement and markings are made. The face edge must be planed and finished absolutely square
A back-fence is a 90 degree surface on a router table against which the timber is passed to keep it in an exact position relative to the cutter.The surface of a flat, planed piece of timber that is used for the first marks and measurements, and from which all other measurements are taken.
This is usually a sub-base or adjustable base fitted to a router or jig to support it or guide it.
An additional thin fence made from hardwood or plastic, which is Fixed to the metal face of the fence on a router table either to prevent splintering-out (break-out) or to give more support when machining long lengths of board.
The end of a section of wood cut to a wedge, or tapered point.
A special holding device designed to push the work up against the fence on a router table.
The direction in which the router is moved in relation to the grain of the workpiece. On a router table, the direction in which the workpiece is advanced in relation to the rotation of the bit. (This should always be opposite).
The speed at which the router is advanced by the operator. When the router is Fixed, it is the speed at which the timber is fed.
A decorative panel used in a framework or door. It consists of a panel with a wide chamfered rebate worked around the edges. Often a small moulding is worked at the inner side of the rebate. The cross grain should be worked first.
A small strip of wood used to support shelves, but also loosely applied to a narrow strip of timber fastened to the surface of the workpiece to act as a fence when the router is working beyond the capacity of its own fence.
Most Plunge routers have a feed in device for the fine feeding of the router head or side fence.
Fine Height Adjuster
A screw mechanism allowing you to make precise adjustments to the cutter height.
A joint made up of a series of equally spaced projections on edges of both pieces of material that interconnect.
Fixed Head Routing
The router is mounted in a Fixed position, either above or below the worktable.
A router that remains in one Fixed vertical position throughout the operation. A Plunge router fully compressed and locked serves the same purpose.
A straight or spiral groove behind the cutting edge of a router cutter that permits the chips to be expelled from the cut. Good fluting is necessary to clear the chips efficiently.
A special bit which is guided by its circular rim rather than its centre point. The advantage of this tool is that it bores a neat, cleanly-cut hole with a flat bottom, its centre point serves only to ensure accuracy for the starting cut. Not for use with abrasive materials unless TCT grade is used.
A device for guiding a router along or within a frame of narrow battens. Usually adjustable to accept different size workpieces.
An assembly of pieces serving as an enclosure or a support for a decorative skin.
G shaped clamp made from solid metal, with screw thread turn handle.
The ISO standard control codes for cnc. For example G01 X50 Y50 is a straight line movement 50 mm diagonally from the origin.
Gemstone Eco worktop
Gemstone is made of 85% recycled material including glass and shell, the solid upper surface is extremely abrasive and requires diamond tools to cut it. A conventional TCT cutter will not cut the top surface. Specialist Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) tooling is required.
Bar with two rebates to hold glass at each side, and usually but not invariably moulded. Used widely in windows and glazed doors etc.
Small wood bead used to hold a glass pane in its rebate.
A hot-melt glue method. Instant bonding, ideal for temporary bonds, eg. fixing work to bench, etc.
Term for quick-action sliding clamps used in woodworking.
Recessed channel, usually of rectangular section, intended to receive a panel, sliding door, or part of a joint such as a tongue.
Removing the background of a design which has to be carved. It is advisable to use a two flute straight cutter of diameter of about 25mm for bulk removal, and then a suitable smaller diameter cutter for the intricate parts of the carving.
A round ring or bush which is mounted on the base of a router, with a space for the cutter to pass through it. It acts as a guidance device for following templates and board edges.
A guide fence is a ledge against which timber is passed to keep it on an even path.
Sometimes called a ´flag table´, drop leaf tables use a rule joint system for hinging. This involves routing an ovolo mould on a table with a radius profile on the leaf to match.A template of some sort that guides the router to form a particular shape, used in conjunction with a bearing guided cutter or guide bush.
Joint where both halves of wood joined together are of equal thickness, used for framing.
Deciduous trees generally give hardwood. Note that certain hardwoods do not necessarily have a hard consistency.
The small projection left by reducing the width of a tenon
The more durable wood (although this varies according to age and type) from the centre of the tree. The dead wood as opposed to the sapwood, which is the growing wood close to the bark of the tree and which carries the sap.
High Speed Steel (HSS)
Hardened and treated high carbon content steel used to make router cutters giving maximum sharpness. Suitable for non-abrasive materials.
Hones and Honing
Hones come in many shapes and sizes and in a variety of materials. They are usually applied for honing or touching-up (sharpening) cutting tools, chisels, etc.
Using the router mounted horizontally in a special table or guiding jig.
A wide trench cut along the grain to house a shelf or similar, also called a 'dado'.
A piece of wood, metal or other material glued into a pre-cut groove or hollow and smoothed flush with the surrounding surface; to insert such a piece.
Intumescent Strip and smoke seal systems provide fire barriers around doors and windows. Specially designed Router cutters are available to recess the strips into timber frames.
A general term for devices used as a holding and guiding mechanism for a router.
The thickness of cut made by a saw or a slotting tool such as a biscuit jointer router cutter. The terms is also used to refer to the thickess of the blade of the tool.
A router cutter that produces a special slotted groove on the backs of picture frames, etc allowing objects to be wall hung.
A very hard mass in a piece of timber formed at the junction of a branch. There are two kinds of knot: the ´dead´ knot which is loose and generally falls out, and the ´live´ knot which is firmly a part of the wood.
Laminate Trim Cutter
A router cutter for trimming plastic laminate which trims the overlay or vertical mounted edge strip.
A joint where one piece overlaps another.
Ledged and Braced Doors
Consist of vertical boards and horizontal bars or ledges strengthened by diagonal braces
Reconstituted materials such as MDF, chipboard, blockboard and plywood.
Medium Density Fibreboard. A versatile man-made board used widely in the woodworking industry. It is smoother than hardboard and denser than chipboard. It has excellent machining characteristics when cut with a router. MDF boards may be veneered or laminated.
The joining together of two pieces of wood usually but not necessarily 45 degree . A picture frame is a typical example.
A rectangular hole or slot cut into wood that will receive another member (called a tenon) to make a right-angle joint, or to receive ironmongery such as a lock. Tenon length equals mortise depth, tenon width equals mortise length and tenon thickness equals mortise width.
A wood surface profile, or a narrow strip that is principally used for decoration. A wide range of moulding cutters are available.
A drilling machine capable of boring many holes in one operation in a piece of timber.
Small multi-fluted rasps used for deburring, cleaning welds, and woodcarving. Normally used in portable hand grinders or light-duty hand routers.
Vertical division between the rails in a door or paneling. For windows muntin refers to very small strips of wood or metal that divide a sash into smaller glass panes or lights.
Softer metals that do not contain iron, such as brass and aluminium.
This cutting profile term has architectural origins. It is a moulding having two curves which impart a wave like profile formed by one convex and one concave curve.
A stone on which oil is applied for touching up cutting tools to hone them.
This moulding has a convex surface (as opposed to a cavetto) formed from a quarter of a circle or ellipse
A board set in a frame, it can either be below, or above, or flush with, the face of the frame itself. Normally seen in panelled doors and furniture.
A door made up from a jointed frame and a seperate panel usually trapped within a groove within the frame.
In routing, it means one run of the router through the work. Several shallow passes of the router give a better finish than one deep one.
A shaped form used as a guide for repetitive cutting or marking out.
Kitchen worktops that are accessible from three sides like a breakfast bar.
The speed of rotation at the extremity of the cutter tip. The distance a given point on the perimeter of a rotating circular object travels, expressed in feet or metres per second.
Pierce and Trim
A single cutter designed to cut through a laminate overlay and then trim it back to the underlying shape.
The ratio of rise to going in a roof or stairs which forms the pitch line.
Plastazote (and Esterzote)
Dense foam compounds often used for packaging and in instrument cases. Good characteristics for machining with a router with sharp high speed steel tools providing the best quality of finish.
The Plunge action of lowering the router cutter into the work. The feature of most modern routers is spring loaded columns for safe vertical movement with the power on.
The mechanism for quickly securing the plunge router down at a set depth.
PPE is Personal Protective Equipment and includes safety goggles, ear defenders and respiratory protection, as well as other equipment such as protective clothing and foot wear
Polytetrafluoroethylene. A dry lubricant, usually a spray, ideal for use on router bit shanks and collets.
Polyvinyl acetate glue. The most popular modern adhesive for woodworking. It dries under pressure in about two hours at 60Á fahrenheit. Not a good gap filler. Relies on good surface-to-surface contact to produce a good joints.
Poly vinyl chloride, a type of plastic material.
A step or flat area created with an ovolo cutter adjacent to the radius. This is often achieved by using a small bearing with an ovolo cutter. A larger bearing typically would not create the quirk giving only the radius.
Rabbet / Rebate Cutter
A cutter for forming a recess on material, normally bearing guided.
Radial Arm Routing
Using a special bracket to attach the router to a radial arm saw to effectively form an overhead stand.
The amount of clearance behind the cutting edge of a cutter that prevents friction between the bit and the timber surface.
Radius of a circle (half the diameter). Radius cutters produce part or half circular concave profiles.
The horizontal member of a door, table carcass, or a chair frame.
Rate of Feed
The speed at which the cutter travels across the wood, either by feeding the router into the wood, or feeding the wood into the cutter.
Rubbed with a sharpening stone to restore the cutting edge.
TCT cutting blades held on to a cutter with locking screws so that they can be changed when blunt.
The vertical board at the front of each step or tread in a staircase.
A circular shaped decorative moulding often used at the corner joints of fireplaces and in cabinet making. Best produced using a purpose-made drilling tool Fixed in a pillar drill.
Quickly removing the bulk of the waste prior to the finishing cuts. Here a straight cutter is used to remove the bulk of the material prior to making a single pass with a dovetail cutter for a dovetailed housing joint.
One of the several round forming cutters which convert square edges, ends and corners of a board to a convex radius.
Any routing system where the router is mounted in a Fixed position and the operator does not manually handle the router. Often provides a safe and accurate means of moulding or profiling workpieces.
Sacrificial Support Strip
A waste batten clamped onto the work that is cut into to prevent break-out at the end of a cut.
Sacrificial Work Pad
A waste board placed under the work.
Cut-outs made in a series of regularly spaced circular scoops.
A cutter with a guide bearing or pin which rides against the edge of a workpiece or pattern to limit its horizontal depth of cut. A bearing guide can be mounted on the end of a cutter or on the shank.
The rounded shank of a cutter clamped into the router and held there by the collet.
The cross-grain cut made on a joint like a tenon or lap joint.
Supports that are attached to the router base used to control the router over small or uneven surfaced work-pieces.
A cutter designed to produce slots in timber. Often used with a bearing guide.
When the revolving cutter picks up the work and tries to throw it off sideways, caused by touching the work whilst the cutter is revolving too slowly.
A term used to describe the physical hardness of various woods with low-to-medium impact resistance. Also woods from coniferous or needle-leaved trees.
Removeable wearing surface covering the base of the router. Also a timber sleeper in which a timber construction is built onto.
A waste batten clamped onto a workholder that is cut into to prevent break-out at the end of a cut. Also known as a sacrificial support strip or sacrificial piece.
Damage at the end of a cut where the unsupported grain breaks away.
A large nail, usually more than 4Ó (102mm) long.
Main shaft of the router or spindle moulder with the collet on the end.
A device on the router shaft or collet that prevents rotation while installing or changing cutters. It enables one spanner only to engage this collet nut, when changing the tool.
A special type of router cutter with helical or spiral cutting edges and grooves (flutes). Available with left hand fluting or right hand fluting to help raise chips out of the work.
A return bead with a quirk at each side. Refers also to the beaded strip which holds a sash window in place.
The outer vertical members of a door or window.
A housing that does not run across the full width of a panel or workpiece.
An accessory for guiding routers, circular saws and jigsaws in a continuous straight line.
One of the inclined members of a stair case into which the treads and risers are fitted.
Fine decorative inlays in the form of fine lines.
A small tenon which does not go completely through the timber.
A secondary additional base fitted under the base of the router. This may be introduced to increase bearing surface, or provide a means of guiding the router in various ways.
A joint where one member crosses the middle of another at right angles, material being removed from both pieces such that the surfaces finish flush.
Tungsten Carbide Tip or Tipped. These are cutting faces on routing or enginerring tools normally brazed onto a tool body. Harder wearing than traditional WS or HSS tools. For woodworking use they are deal for man-made boards.
Predetermined shape that acts as a guide for forming shapes using a router with either a guide bush or roller bearing.
Either a roller bearing or circular guide bush used to guide the router around a predetermined shape or pattern.
Male part of joint, often rectangular but varies, traditionally width of the tenon was a third of work piece. Tenon length equals mortise depth, tenon width equals mortise length and tenon thickness equals mortise width.
A right angled joint where the pins and tails of the joint are exposed on both faces.
A slot across the width of a workpiece to receive, for example, a shelf.
Tongue and Groove Joint
A conventional means of jointing in wood flooring and panelling. Male and female form interlocking joint along edges.
A convex moulding of approximately semi-circular section, generally used on skirting and architrave.
A channel or housing across the grain. Also can be called a 'dado' .
A man-made plastic type material ideal for template making.
This is a metal found in a number of minerals, but chiefly in wolframite. In colloidal form it is used in the filaments of lamps. As tungsten carbide it is used in a wide variety of cutting tools to give them long cutting life.
A straight bit with the cutting edges inclined slightly so that they lift the swarf clear of the cut.
A very fine pointed cutter used for engraving or letter cutting.
A thin sheet or layer of sliced wood, glued or bonded to a surface, usually wood or man-made board; a decorative covering.
A small square section of timber cut into the lining of a box sash window to allow access to the sash weights.
Fusion of the hot swarf behind the cutter when machining materials such as acrylic. Depending on the material being cut a coolant can be used to reduce weldback., such as wax lubricant, oil/air mix or air line.
A specially adapted board with a variety of built in mechanisms for holding the work.
This is the board or component which is to be worked, machined, drilled, sanded, or routed.
The suface of a table. Often referring to worktop used in a kitchen. This is sometimes called Postformed Worktop due to its curved edge. Special jigs are available for routing kitchen worktops to ensure a seamless joint.